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(-- Modern Period --)

First Round of KMT-CPC Cooperation

In the early 1920s, in search of a better way to end the ruling of Northern Warlords and imperial powers and to advance revolution in China, Sun Yat-sen accepted the help from Communist International, Soviet Russia and Communist Party of China (CPC). He also accepted the advice from Ma Lin, the representative from Communist International to cooperate with the CPC by allowing CPC menbers to join Nationalist Party (Kuomingtang, KMT) as individual menbers. In June 1923, on the Third National Conference of CPC, the policy of cooperating with KMT by individual membership was discussed on and adopted.

After a series of preparation, in January 1924, First National Congress of KMT was held in Guangzhou. Some CPC members, such as Li Dazhao and Mao Zedong, also attended the conference. The three cardinal policies i.e. allying with Russia, uniting with wht CPC and assisting farmers and workers, were adopted. Three People Principles were re-interpreted and the KMT was reorganized. The first KMT-CPC cooperation took place.

The KMT-CPC cooperation marked the climax of the national revolution against the rule of warlords.

Reference data

Guangzhou-Hong Kong Strike
In May 1925, British and Japanese troops in Shanghai shot the local protesters in Shanghai, hence May 30th massacre, which aroused the anger of people from all over the country. Workers in Shanghai organized a united strike. In June 1925, to support the strike in Shanghai, the CPC directed workers in Guangzhou and Hong Kong to go on strike to protest British imperialism. The strike was massive in size and lasted a long time. 250,000 workers in Hong Kong participated in the strike, which lasted for 16 months and caused great loss to British imperialists.

Whampoa Military Academy
Under the KMT-CPC cooperation and with the help of Soviet Union and the CPC, Sun Yat-sen set up an academy for army officers - Whampoa Military Academy in Guangzhou in 1924. The academy trained members of both the CPC and the KMT as the spearhead of the new revolutionary forces. Chiang Kai-shek was appointed president of the Academy, and many CPC members, including Zhou Enlai, held important posts in the Academy. Both military and political course were taught. Whampoa stressed political education and cultivated the students patriotism and revolutionary spirit. As for military education, it adopted the latest military theories and techniques from Soviet Union to train students in various subject areas. From 1924 to 1927, Whampoa Military Academy trained over 12,000 students in six terms, many of whom later became senior officers and political leaders of two parties. In this way, the Whampoa contributed greatly to Chinese revolution.
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